Non-union/Delayed Union Fracture

  Stem cell therapy for non union delayed unionfracture
Nonunion of a fracture refers to the absence of healing in a fracture.

Nonunion is a serious complication of a fracture and may occur when the fracture moves too much, has a poor blood supply or gets infected. Patients who smoke have a higher incidence of nonunion. The normal process of bone healing is interrupted or stalled. More commonly the tissue between the un-united fragments is scar tissue.

Since the process of bone healing is quite variable, a nonunion may go on to heal without intervention in a very few cases. In general, if a nonunion is still evident at 6 months post injury it will remain unhealed without specific treatment, usually orthopedic surgery. A non-union which does go on to heal is called a delayed union.

Types of Non-Union

1. Hypertrophic non-union  Callus is formed, but the bone fractures have not joined. This can be due to inadequate fixation of the fracture, and treated with rigid immobilization.

2. Atrophic non-union  No callus is formed. This is often due to impaired bony healing, for example due to vascular causes (e.g. impaired blood supply to the bone fragments) or metabolic causes (e.g. diabetes or smoking). Failure of initial union, for example when bone fragments are separated by soft tissue may also lead to atrophic non-union.

Cause of a Non-Union

Determining the cause of a nonunion is critical to determining the proper treatment. The most common causes of nonunion are:

1. Infection 
2. Inadequate blood flow to the bone 
3. Separation of the fractured ends of the bone 
4. Inadequate stabilization of the fracture.

Treatment of Non-Union Fracture using Stem Cell Therapy:-

The primary bone-forming cell in the body is the osteoblast and its precursor is the MSC. Bone formation occurs as the extracellular matrix, which is produced by the osteoblast, becomes mineralized. Osteoprogenitors refer to all the cell stages stemming from Mesenchymal stem cells up to the osteoblast. This naturally occurring differentiation process is regulated by a series of naturally occurring proteins, or growth factors, that eventually guide the MSC to form osteoblast.

Follow-up with patients:-

Our medical staff members will be in contact with patients to get complete follow-up at 1, 3, 6 month intervals to monitor all the evaluation.

Scientific Papers:-

1. Hendrich et al. 2009, Orthopaedics Review. Safety of autologous bone marrow aspiration concentrates transplantation: initial experiences in 101 patients

2. Chanchai et al. 2009. Journal of Cranio-Maxillofacial Surgery. Application of a new chair-side method for the harvest of mesenchymal stem cells in a patient with nonunion of a fracture of the atrophic mandible case report

3. Hernigou et al. 2005, The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery. Percutaneous Autologous Bone-Marrow Grafting for Nonunions: Influence of the Number and Concentration of Progenitor Cells.

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